By | December 1, 2020

  AMMONIA EXPOSURE Ammonia is a gas. It is highly soluble in water when it comes in contact with the inner lining (mucous membrane) of the respiratory tract following inhalation, or in contact with the eyes. It dissolves in the mucus (the liquid produced by the mucous membrane) and produces a highly irritating chemical substance… Read More »


By | December 1, 2020

GOUT IN POULTRY Gout is a metabolic disease characterized by the deposition of urates on the surfaces of various internal organs or various joints. It is a very common finding during a postmortem examination of poultry and can be a source of great economic loss to the farmer. Birds usually die from kidney failure. Both… Read More »

Troubleshooting during composting process

By | November 26, 2020

Troubleshooting during the composting process Composting isn’t an exacting science. It happens naturally in our backyard heaps, just as it does on every forest and prairie floor. While maintaining ideal temperatures in a bin or pile takes some attention, the problems that arise when making compost are few and the solutions are many. Here, when… Read More »

Vaccine Production units and companies In Pakistan

By | November 26, 2020

Private And Government Vaccine Production units and companies In Pakistan       Introduction:                                                                                 Due to increasing demands for vaccines many private and some public sector Laboritaries have started producing vaccines for livestock and poultry.Due to the shortage of cheap and domestically manufactured vaccines, we are importing a huge lot of vaccines from the outside world.… Read More »

Isolation and identification of Salmonella

By | October 22, 2020

Isolation and identification of Salmonella Salmonella is gram-negative bacteria, facultatively anaerobic, and facultative intracellular parasite. There are a different kind of test for isolation and identification that are listed below Biochemical test In this kind of test, we can identify the salmonella on the basis of ferment so the salmonella in ferment with the maltose,… Read More »